U rology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both men and women, and with the genital tract or reproductive system in the male. Taken together, they are sometimes called the genitourinary system. (For women, the medical specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology specializes in the reproductive system.)

The urinary tract includes the organ system primarily responsible for cleaning and filtering excess fluid and waste material from the blood. The urinary tract system is comprised of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Physicians who specialize in the treatment of the urinary tract are called urologists.